Service Barrie (705) 726-4242ServiceBarrie@barrie.ca
Urban forestry preventative maintenance programs include pest preparedness measures to ensure that the City of Barrie’s trees are safe and healthy.
City Council has passed a motion that "staff in the Operations Department investigate the feasibility of aerial spraying or the use of pheromone traps for the prevention of gypsy moths, including regional border greenspaces, the costs and report back as part of the 2022 Business Plan and Budget Process."
Watch the full discussion of General Committee.
The City's 2021
LDD Moth Management Approach includes the adoption of one of four measures. Please review
tips to protect your trees from LDD moth infestation.
There are several diseases and insects that affect trees. Some trees are more susceptible to certain diseases while other trees might be the preferred host for specific insects. Many of these insect populations are kept under control through natural predators and pathogens.
If populations arise to an infestation the City takes on an Integrated Management Approach. Different management techniques are used to address pest populations starting with the least harmful to the environment.
Invasive insect species to be on the lookout for in Barrie:
*The City recognizes that the term “gypsy" may be perceived as culturally insensitive. To be more inclusive, we now refer to the insect by its Latin name: Lymantria dispar dispar (LDD) moth.
2021 was a significant year for LDD moth infestation in Ontario and staff applied an
integrated management approach on City property in specific areas, which will continue into 2022. Steps to protect trees on your property are outlined below and should be continued into 2022.
Scrape egg masses off surfaces into soapy water to destroy them:
Helpful videos to reference:
LDD Moth Egg Mass RemovalSource: The City of Toronto
Finding and Removing LDD Moth Egg MassesSource: The City of Toronto
How to Remove LDD Moth Egg MassesSource: The City of London
When the caterpillars are in their first instar (tiny stage) they will dispense in the wind and fall to the ground. Instinctively, they find a tree, crawl up to the canopy and begin feeding. Sticky tape can be applied around the tree trunk to prevent caterpillars from reaching the top of the tree.
Helpful video to reference:
Tree wrapping to mitigate LDD mothsSource: The City of Grand Rapids
If you taped your tree in the spring, remove the tape to prevent damage to the tree.
When the caterpillars are in the large caterpillar stage they will move down the tree during the day to seek shelter then return up the tree to feed at night. Placing burlap bands around the tree trunk provides a resting place for caterpillars which can be removed and killed:
Helpful video to reference:
LDD Moth Burlap trap for caterpillars (Source: The City of Toronto).
The LDD moth caterpillar morphs into the pupal (cocoon) stage in July. This stage generally lasts 10 to 13 days. To help control next year's population, collect the pupae, put them a pail of soapy water, and leave them in the pail for a few days. Then dispose of the pupae in a sealed garbage bag.
If you notice dead caterpillars on your tree, leave them. Dead caterpillars indicate decline. If you leave them, it will help spread the virus or fungus that kills the caterpillars.
Once in the moth stage, there are few control options. The moth stage is short-lived and it's best to focus on the other stages when applying control methods.
If you are concerned about the health of your boulevard tree due to LDD moth infestation, please provide your address to Service Barrie at 705-726-4242 or
ServiceBarrie@barrie.ca. An inspection workorder will be created to review the health of your tree following this season’s LDD moth outbreak (fall 2021).
Note: If your tree is in overall good health, defoliation will only stress your tree, not kill it.
Urban forestry staff are responsible for pest preparedness programs and monitoring on City property. Urban forestry preventative maintenance programs include pest preparedness measures to ensure that the City’s trees are safe and healthy.
Two serious threats to the health of our urban forests have been monitored by staff since 2004: the
Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) and the
Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis). No natural predators or control agents are known to control the populations of these two insects.
City staff monitor the populations of LDD Moth along with our municipal and provincial partners.
Gypsy Moth (County of Simcoe);
Gypsy Moth (Province of Ontario).
We cannot eradicate this moth as it is well established throughout North America. LDD moth outbreaks usually occur every 7–10 years and may last for a period of 1–3 years. LDD moth populations naturally collapse from the NPV virus and fungal
2021 will be a significant year for LDD moth infestation in Ontario. Based on a gypsy moth populations assessment from
BioForest, there are certain areas in Barrie that will experience moderate to significant levels of defoliation. City staff will be acting in those high infestation areas through an Integrated Pest Management Approach, applying one of four measures outlined below in
high infestation areas:
Forestry staff plan on doing an egg mass survey in winter 2020/21 to determine if we are at the peak of this cycle and to help projected hotspots for next season.
In 2006, City staff instituted a moratorium on planting Ash species on public lands in Barrie and recommended that land developers and consultants omit ash from planting on private property. As of April 1 2014, the County of Simcoe (including Barrie) has been included in the zone under regulation for EAB. Signs and symptoms of EAB-infested ash trees:
If a City tree exhibits these signs please report to Service Barrie at 705-726-4242 or
ServiceBarrie@barrie.ca. If you're concerned that your private tree is infested, staff suggest calling a certified arborist to have it inspected. There are several local tree companies with certified, licensed and insured arborists who can assess your trees and provide recommendations on the best course of action.
a) Identify specimen ash trees for treatment
b) Begin systematic removal and replacement of young ash trees on boulevards
c) Proactive planting in areas of high ash component
d) Public education on EAB
e) Begin bi-annual treatment of specimen ash
f) Systematic removals to include mature ash where integration with other programs create efficiencies (e.g. block pruning program)
g) Removal of all ash trees on a street or within a park where EAB has been discovered.
On March 26, 2012, after review of
Staff Report re Pest Preparedness, Council adopted the EAB Program, a 2-phase project expected to last 15 years. In August 2014, EAB was confirmed within
several locations in Barrie. As a result, forestry staff commenced Phase 2 of the EAB Program.
ALHB is native to China and is considered a major pest of hardwood trees in many parts of the country. Based on the Chinese experience with this insect and the infestations in the United States and Vaughan, this beetle would survive and reproduce in the hardwood forests of southern Canada.
A variety of hardwood trees serve as hosts to ALHB. In Asia, the primary hosts are
poplar (Populus) and
willow (Salix). Other hosts include;
horse chestnut (Aesculus),
mountain ash (Sorbus),
black locust (Robinia),
silk tree (Albizia),
hackberry (Celtis), and
sycamore (Platanus). All of these genera represent over 1,000 vulnerable species; the first five genera have been found to support reproducing populations in New York and Vaughan.
The ALHB infestation is considered “under control” within the Vaughan/Toronto Regulated Area, and the
CFIA are monitoring the area for any further signs of its presence. However,
ALHB was found in Mississauga in September 2013, prompting the CFIA to begin the process of starting an eradication program for that population. City staff continue to monitor the CFIA information provided on this pest.
It is critical to properly identify new introductions and be on the lookout for invasive species before they get established. The spread of pests and diseases cause harm to the ecosystem, economy, society, and potentially human health. If you think that you have spotted an invasive species on City property, please send photos and report location details to Service Barrie at
ServiceBarrie@barrie.ca. If it's found on your own property please report on
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